Methodology of calculation of characteristics of exotic atoms
AbstractIn the present article the methodology of calculation of characteristics of exotic atoms is considered, it will be of use for young teachers and researchers in the field of theoretical nuclear physics. The hydrogen-like systems are considered, the main formulas for calculation of characteristics of such systems are given. The examples of calculation of characteristics of such systems as mesoatoms, positronium, muonium, protonium and pionium are shown. In such systems the dominating role is for the Coulomb interaction since the nuclear forces are short-range ones and the maximum of nuclear forces’ action is for a distance of order of several fermi but the Bohr radii are considerably larger. At these distances the nuclear forces are weaker and the protonium and pionium are essentially Coulomb systems. For the mentioned systems there is a detailed calculation of energy of ionization and the Bohr radius using the conversion constant and the fine structure constant. The theoretical calculation for the protonium and pionium using the formulas for the Coulomb systems is in good agreement with the experimental data. The brief description of the method of determination of the mass of deuteron and triton is given, using the isotopic shift of the spectral lines of hydrogen isotopes – deuterium and tritium.
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